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  俞稚玉,上海购物中心协会副秘书长兼研究发展中心主任。

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零售业的数字化营销

零售业的数字化营销
The Digital Marketing of Retailing
上海购物中心协会(SCSC)研究发展中心主任
Shanghai Council of Shopping Center (SCSC)
俞稚玉
Zhiyu Yu
2007 年3 月31 日
Mar.31, 2007

  一、零售业的数字化营销包括那些内容:
  1, What contents do the Digital Marketing of retailing include?

  (一)什么是数字化营销?
  1, 1, What is Digital Marketing?

  “数字化营销”这个术语的源头来自于IT 行业。原来的含义仅是一个信息技术用语。即指:新兴媒体用数字化技术代替模拟化技术来进行传输,数字化营销就是指使用数字化技术手段来进行沟通、销售和支付等营销活动。
  The term of “ Digital Marketing" was borrowed from IT industry.It means the emerging digital media technology to replace analogue transmission technology and is only used in information technology. Here, Digital Marketing refers to the use of digital technology for marketing activities, i.e. communication, sales and payment.

  由于现代连锁企业的出现,企业的规模空前庞大,大量采用信息化技术已成为企业管理的基础。数字化的意义已远远超出技术的层面,数字化改造已成为许多零售企业的一种战略选择。数字化营销的概念也超越了IT 技术术语的范畴,成为现代零售业的一个子系统。
  Since the emergence of modern retail chain, companies grow bigger and bigger. Extensive use of information technology has become the foundation of enterprise management. The significance of digitalization has gone far beyond technologies. Digitalization transformation has become a strategic choice of many retail enterprises. The concept of “Digital Marketing” has gone beyond the technical jargon of IT and formed to a subsystem of a modern retailing.

  据亚洲数字化营销协会ADMA 的数据显示,2004 年,亚太地区有近82%的公司采用过数字化营销手段来进行业务支持。数字化营销之所以受到企业的青睐,是因为它具备传统营销模式无法比拟的优势。
  According to the data from Asian Digital Marketing Association (ADMA), nearly 82% of the companies adopted Digital Marketing tools to support their businesses in Asia-Pacific region in 2004.Digital Marketing has been favored by many companies due to its unmatched advantage over traditional marketing model.

  Isobar 集团(欧洲最大媒体集团AEGIS 旗下公司)全球CEO 奈吉尔·莫里斯(Nigel Morris)先生说:“数字化营销,就是指借助于互联网络、电脑通信技术和数字交互式媒体来实现营销目标的一种营销方式。但更为重要的是,数字技术其实只是它的一种武器,数字化营销绝不打算放弃传统武器。数字化营销同时更是一种哲学,它整合了线上和线下的各种媒体资源,来为企业的营销目标服务。对企业来说,最重要的是利用线上和线下的多种媒体最大限度地扩大企业同顾客的接触点,根据不同媒体的特性设计传播内容,以此在顾客心目中建立统一的企业形象和品牌形象,达到整合营销传播的目的。而提供企业对顾客个人一对一营销的整合网络解决方案,则是数字化营销首先需要解决的问题。”
  Globe CEO Mr. Nigel Morris of Isobar Group (Subsidiary of AEGIS —— Europe's largest media group) advised: “Digital Marketing is a marketing approach that applies the Internet, computer communications technology and Interactive digital media to achieve marketing goals. But more importantly, Digital technology is only one of its weapons. Digital Marketing does not
intend to give up traditional weapons. It is also a philosophy. It integrates the various offline and online media resources to achieve the enterprise marketing objectives. To use a variety of offline and online media to maximize the point of contact with customers, to design the contents of transmission based on characteristics of the different media, to establish a unified corporate and brand image,and to achieve the purpose of Integrated Marketing Communications are the most important objectives for enterprises. The first question need to be addressed, with regards to Digital Marketing, is to provide the integrated network solutions of one-on-one business to consumer marketing.

  (二)数字化营销包括那些内容:
  1, 2, What contents do “Digital Marketing” include?

  几乎包括了所有最新的营销理念,如:网络营销、多媒体广告、一对一营销、直复营销、分众营销、顾客导向营销、互动营销、体验营销、娱乐营销、无店铺营销、无纸化交易和在线研讨会等等。
  It include almost all the latest marketing concepts, i.e. Network Marketing, Multimedia Advertising, One-to-one Marketing, Direct Marketing, Focus Marketing ,Customer-oriented Marketing,Customer Interactive Marketing, Interactive Marketing, Experiential Marketing, Entertainment Marketing, Nonstore Marketing, Scripless Trading, and Online Seminars etc.

  (三)零售业数字化营销的条件:
  1, 3, The condition of Digital Marketing in retailing

  数字化营销与企业内部管理关系密切,企业的信息化水平是数字化营销的基点。零售企业进行数字化营销涉及企业内部硬件配置与软件应用两个方面。
  The relation is very close between Digital Marketing and theinternal management of enterprises: the level of informationalization is the basis of Digital Marketing. Digital Marketing of retail enterprises involves both internal hardware configuration and software applications.

  1、硬件配置:
  1, 3, 1, Hardware configuration

  (1)基础IT 技术运行环境;(如:电脑系统配置、网点的空间布局、通讯硬件条件……。)
  1, 3, 1, 1,Operation environment of basic IT technology (e.g.Configuration of computer system, Space distribution of net, and Hardware condition of communication etc.)

  (2)营销工具;(如:多媒体。)
  1, 3, 1, 2, Marketing tools (e.g. Multimedia)

  2、软件应用:
  1, 3, 2, Software applications

  (1)管理基础软件的开发应用。(如:MIS、MC、CRM……。)
  1, 3, 2, 1, The development and implementation of the basic management software (e.g. MIS, MC, CRM etc)

  (2)数字化营销专业软件的应用。(如:品类管理、、CRM 解决方案、RFM * 分析模型、数据挖掘、营销数据库和各种数字建摸自动化软件**……)

  1, 3, 2, 2, The implementation of Digital Marketing specialty software (e.g. Category Management, CRM, RFM* Model, Data Mining, Marketing Databank and Automatization Digital Modeling Softwares ** etc)

  *: Recency 最近、Frequency 频率、Monetary 货币价值。
  *: RFM: Recency, Frequency, and Monetary
  **: 如美国Unica 公司Affinium Model 就是一套面向业务问题的数字挖掘和数字建摸的应用模型集成的软件。它含有四大类相互集成的模型: 响应模型(Response Modeler)、交叉销售模型(Cross Seller)、客户价值评估模型(Customer Valuator)、市场细分与客户分组模型(Market Segmenter /Profiler)。
  **: For example, Unica Affinium Model (US) is a set of integration digital mining and digital modeling model software which faces companies operational issues. It contains four categories of Integration Model: Response Modeler, Cross Seller, Customer Valuator, Market Segmenter / Profiler.

  二、零售业营销中常见的软肋:
  2,Common weaknesses of Retail Marketing

  (一)“自杀性炸弹”的价格肉搏:价格战和变相的价格战“一枝独秀”。
  2,1, The price combat is like "suicide bomb" :The price combat and covert price combat is "thriving" only

  (二)“千店一面“的叫卖:形式简单、雷同,顾客产生“视觉疲劳”心理。
  2,2, The “Thousands stores is similar” sale style: simple in form,identical and customers have a "visual fatigue" mentality.

  (三)“低性价比”的盲目性:营销策划无法量化效果,影响成功概率。
  2,3, Blindness of “low ratio of price /”: The effect is unable to quantify in marketing plan , thus negatively impact probability of success.

  (四)“内外两张皮“:营销与企业内部管理脱节,营销成“无本之木”,管理成“无源之水”。
  2,4, “Inner and external two skins”: Marketing is disconnected to internal management, marketing like as “trees without root” and “water without source.”

  三、数字化营销的特点:
  3, The characteristics of “Digital Marketing”

  (一)形式的多样性:社会信息化产品的普及为数字化营销提供了广阔的舞台。
  3,1, The diversity of the shapes: The popularization of society information products provide a broad arena for Digital Marketing.

  (二)受众的针对性:采用分众或合众的方法,锁定目标客户。
  3,2, Pertinence of targeted audience: Locking objective customers using focus and target approaches.

  (三)内外的一致性:数字化营销依赖于企业管理的信息化程度。企业内部的数据仓库、为营销活动所需的数字挖掘提供了取之不竭的资源,营销活动的市场反馈又为企业管理的改进提供了依据,使企业运转处于良性的“活水”状态。
  3,3, The consistency of both internal and external :Digital Marketing relies on the level of enterprises information technology. The internal databank of enterprise could provide inexhaustible resources needed for data mining for marketing. The bases of improvement of enterprises management was provided by market feedback of marketing activities. The enterprises operation will be a healthy "living" status.

  (四)空间的广域性:通过企业内部的局域网与互联网的配合使营销活动突破地域空间的限制,大大提高其效率。对于跨地域大型的连锁零售企业,数字化营销有更大的意义。
  3,4, The universality of space: Through work in internet and intranet,Marketing activities make a breakthrough in the area of space restrictions, greatly improving its efficiency. For retail
striding areas enterprises of large chains, Digital Marketing has greater significance.

  (五)时间的快捷性:借助于电子技术的数字化营销,由于维护方便,传输一瞬间,有其他方式无法替代的优势。
  3.5. The promptness of time: Digital Marketing using electronic technology has advantages that can not be replaced by any other method, due to the maintenance convenience and the instant transmission.

  (六)供需的互动性:数字化营销还能与客户互动,增加了顾客在购物过程中的体验式享受,增添了顾客的购物乐趣;而且商家也能及时得到市场反馈,提高营销活动的成功机率。
  3,6, The interaction between supply and demand : Digital Marketing could interact with customer. To enhance in the customer shopping experience and to add some fun into customer shopping; Moreover,businesses can also get feedback from the market; improve the success rate of marketing activities.

  (七)成本的可控性:随着经济的发展,伴随着社会广告行业的发展费用也急剧的上涨,数字化营销可提供多种方式的组合,改变单一选择的被动地位,有利于企业编制营销的费用预算。雅虎和Google的在线广告费总额已超过美国三大电视网ABC、NBC、CBS 黄金时段(primetime)广告费总和就充分地证明了这一 点。
  3,7, Controllable of the costs: Accompanied with the development of the economy, the cost of development of social advertising has been a sharp rise. Digital Marketing can provide a variety of mix,changing a passive circumstance of having single choice. It is beneficial to the budget preparation of marketing. That being said,Yahoo and Google's total online advertising has surpassed total advertising of the major television networks ABC, NBC, CBS prime time (primetime) in United States.
  
  综上所述,如果零售企业能将营销工作与企业内部管理工作有机的结合起来,充分利用社会的和企业的IT 资源,零售行业的数字化营销将有很大的发展空间。
  In short, if retail enterprises are able to organic combine Digital Marketing and internal management, fully utilize social and enterprise IT resources, the retailing’s Digital Marketing will be a lot of room for improving.

  四、谨防进入数字化营销的误区:
  4,Beware of entering into trap of Digital Marketing

  (一)仅将数字化看作为提升企业水准的标志,忽视企业发展的阶段性要求。技术采用应重视适应性:遵循“够用就好的原则”。反对所谓“一步到位”,盲目追求“世界领先”、“全国领先”。应按需求优先级别原则分批投入。重视实用性和针对性。
  4,1, Digital was seen only as a signs of upgrading enterprises; Therequirement of enterprise development in each stage was ignored.The implementation of technology should pay attention toadaptability. following the principle of “just only enough” . Oppose to the so-called “one stop to the end”, to blindly pursue “world leader or the country”. Should invest in stages according to the principle of demand priority. Pay attention to practical and purposeful.

  (二) 仅将数字化营销看作为一种工具和形式,忽视它的整合功能和对改进企业管理的促进功能。这是一种“重表轻本”的认识。
  4,2, Digital Marketing was seen only as a tool and modality. Its s of integration and improvement of enterprise management was ignored. This is an understanding of “notice to face and despise to essence”.

  (三) 仅将数字化营销作为促销的手段,忽视企业基础工作的开展和积累。如:数字仓库的建立、品类分析和管理、数据挖掘和利用、数字化营销前后台的整合等等。
  4,3, Digital Marketing was used only as a kind of promotion. The development andaccumulation of basic work of enterprise was ignored. Such as: the establishment of databank, category analysis and management, data mining and implementation, integration “between proscenium and tiring-room” of Digital Marketing etc.

  (四) 仅将数字化营销作为市场营销部门的工作,忽视它的整体性要求。成功的数字化营销应是企业相关部门合力的结果。在数字化营销的贯彻过程中也可以考虑完善与这项工作相对应的矩阵式的组织结构。
  4,4, Digital Marketing was used only as the job of marketing department and intergration requirement was ignored. The success of Digital Marketing should be the result of the combined efforts of relevant departments of the enterprise. In the process of carrying out Digital Marketing, the improvement of the organizational structure corresponding to the matrix should be considered

  (五)仅将数字化营销作为一次次具体的活动,活动结束就是终点,忽视系统性。其实,数字化营销也是一个PDCA(Plan, Do, Check,Action)的循环。前一事件应是后一事件的开始,这样才能以系统的方式不断提高它的有效性。
  4,5, Digital Marketing was used only as a real activity. When a specific activity is completed, the marketing is over. The system was ignore. In fact, Digital Marketing is a cycle of PDCA (Plan, Do,Check, Action). The end of prior one incident is the start of next one incident. In such way, it could continuously improve its effectiveness by systematic manner.

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