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俞稚玉

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  俞稚玉,上海购物中心协会副秘书长兼研究发展中心主任。

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如何规范中国购物中心的定义与分类

探讨如何规范中国购物中心的定义与分类
Discuss of criterion to definition and classification of shopping centers in China
上海购物中心协会研究发展中心主任
Director of Research & Development Center, Shanghai Council of Shopping Centers
俞稚玉
Zhiyu Yu
2007 年1 月
Jen.2007

  一、 一个概念——“购物中心”是一个边界模糊的零售概念:

  1. A concept-------- ‘Shopping Center ”is a retailing blurry concept

  零售商业业态的定义与分类是为了清晰差别,易于识别,便于研究,利于应用。定义与分类是按照事物的自然和社会的客观属性加以人为的主观界定。由于零售业是一种与人类社会与生活紧密联系的行业,尤其在如中国那些新兴发展的国家中,社会变化日新月异,任何科学的定义和分类方法往往落后于飞速发展的现实变化,零售业的发展总是突破传统的概念,使原来的概念变得模糊起来。“购物中心”的定义与分类也是一个边界模糊的零售概念。
  Through definition and classification to retailing forms, It is known deferen cesclearly, distinguished easily, researched deeply, and applied profitably. Definition and classification according to the natural and social objective attributes to define subjectively by human. Due to retailing is a industry in close contact with human society and living, especially those in emerging developing countries such as China, a rapidly changing society. any scientific definition and classification changes usually lag behind the rapid development of the reality, Retailing development is always breakthrough the traditional concept that the original concept has become blurred. The definition and classification of “Shopping Center” is a retail concept as fuzzy boundaries too.

  中国的购物中心是在20 世纪末才被真正发展起来的。但是早在20 世纪八十年代,“购物中心”的名词已在大小城市中出现。也就是说,在真正的购物中心出生前,“购物中心”的名字已在中国被滥用和泛化。甚至一个仅几平米的小卖部也挂出“购物中心”的招牌。“购物中心”的定义在中国更加显得模糊。分类问题就更加无从谈起。
  Shopping center was truly developed at the end of the 20th century in China. However, in 20th century the 1980s, the "Shopping Center" has appeared in some cities. In other words, prior to the birth of a real shopping center, the word, "Shopping Center", has been abused and generalization. Even just a few square meter shop has hung a "shopping center" signs. The definition of "Shopping Center" is more ambiguous in China. Their classification is nothing more.

  二、 一个难题——购物中心的正确定义与分类是一个世界性的难题
  2. A puzzle--------The right definition and classification of “Shopping Center” is a
puzzle in the world

  1、世界各国各有各的定义:
  2.1. Definitions are different in various countries

  (1) 美国的定义:
  2.1.1. The definition of US

  “购物中心是由单一产权所有者所拥有并实施计划、开发和管理的零售和其他商业设施的组合。购物中心提供泊车位。购物中心的大小和定位一般由该中心所服务的商圈市场特点来决定。购物中心的主要形态有三种:摩尔、户外中心和混合型中心。”
  Shopping Center is a group of retail and other commercial establishments that is planned, developed, owned and managed as a single property. On-site parking is provided. The center's size and orientation are generally determined by the market characteristics of the trade area served by the center. There are three main types:mall, open-air strip Center and Mixed-use center (an integrated complex that may contain offices, restaurants, theaters, a hotel and other services, in addition to retail stores)

  (2) 日本的定义:
  2.1.2. The definition of Japan

  现行版的日本购物中心协会对购物中心所下的定义是:购物中心是作为一个单位有计划地开发、所有、管理运营的商业和各种服务设施的集合
体,并备有停车场,按其选址、规模、结构,具有选择多样化、方便性和
娱乐性等特征,并作为适应消费需要的社交场所,发挥着一部分城市功能。
  The definition of Shopping Center of Japan Council of Shopping Center presently is “Shopping Center is a group of developer, owner, operator and other service establishments as one unit designedly. On-site parking is provided. According to location, size, structure, have choicing diversification, convenience and entertainment features. as the places where people socialize to suit consumer needs play a part of s of the city. “

  (3) 中国的定义:
  2.1.3. The definition of China

  我国国家质量技术监督局曾于2000年5月19日发布的国家标准《零售业态分类》中,对购物中心的定义为:“企业有计划地开发、拥有、管理运营的各类零售业态、服务设施的集合体。”其业态结构特点为:“由发起者有计划地开设,实行商业型公司管理,中心内设商店管理委员会,开展广告宣传等共同活动,实行统一管理。内部结构由百货店或超级市场作为核心店,以及各类专业店、专卖店等零售业态和餐饮、娱乐设施构成。服务功能齐全,集零售、餐饮、娱乐为一体。根据销售面积,设相应规模的停车场。选址为中心商业区或城乡结合部的交通要道。商圈根据不同经营规模、经营商品而定。设施豪华、店堂典雅、宽敞明亮,实行卖场租赁制。目标顾客,以流动顾客为主。”
  State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision of China have issued a state standard(G.B.) in May 19,2000: ”The Classification of Retailing Forms”. Shopping Center was defined to “A group of various retailing forms, service establishments which developing, owning, operation designedly by firm”. Their structurecharacteristics are opening designedly by sponsor, carrying out administration commercialization, founding management committee in center, developing common activities as advertisement and promotions, practicing consolidate management. Department store or supermarket was qua core shop, various special shops monopolization shop etc. and restaurants, entertainment establishments was congregating in inner. Service s are perfect. Retailing, restaurants and entertainments were Integrates to one site. To providing parking lot of corresponding size bases on sales area. Choose location is CBD or main drag of linking area between town and rural. The size of trading area was confirmed according to the scale of operations management products available. Luxurious facilities, elegant
spacious and bright stores,.The store implemented the rental system. Target customers are the mobile customer-oriented.

  2、购物中心的分类:
  2.2. The classification of shopping centers

  (1) 美国的分类:
  2.2.1. The classification of us

  ICSC将购物中心分为两大类和八个亚类(见下表)。
  The classification of ICSC divided two kinds and eight sub-kinds of center

  美国国际购物中心协会关于购物中心的分类和定义表
  The Definition and Classification of Shopping Center of ICSC






  2006 年又加上混合型中心,使分类成为三类八亚类。
  It was added Mixed-use center and became three kinds and eight sub-kinds In 2006.

  (2)中国的分类:
  2.2.2. The classification of China

  ①中国国家质量技术监督局于2000 年5 月19 日发布的国家标准《零售业态分类》中,对购物中心的分为:近邻型、社区型、区域型、超区域型四种”。
  2.2.2.1. According to “The classification of retailing forms” ,that was issued by Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision of China in May 19,2000,Shopping Centers was divided four kinds of neighbor center, community center, region center and super-region center.

  这种分类类似于NRB 早期的的分类。
  The classification is like early method of NRB.

  ②2004 年国家质量监督检验检疫总局和国家标准化管理委员会联合颁布新国家标准《零售业态分类》,该标准为推荐性标准,于2004 年10月1 日开始实施。
  2.2.2.2. State General Administration for Quality Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine and the State Commission for Administration of Standardization unite issued new state standard “Classification of Retailing Forms” This is a recommended standard and come into effect from Oct.1,2004.

  零售业态分类和基本特点(购物中心部分)

  





  三、 一个企盼——与国际接轨的,又有中国特色的科学定义与分类的出现
  3. A hope--------to appear a scientific definition and classification with China characteristic and approaching international method

  1、科学定义与分类是现实的需要
  3.1. To scientific definition and classification are real require

  购物中心产业已成为最重要的零售经营方式之一,而且已远远突破商品零售的界限.它对一个城市的商业环境改善、消费与休闲方式的改变、投资结构的优化、对经济繁荣的贡献等越来越显示出它的重要性和生命力。
  The industry as shopping center have became a most important one of retailing forms, It have breakthrough bound of selling commodities to far. It have displayed more and more its significance and vitality to improving eco-business of a city,changing consumption and leisure fasions, optimizing investment structure,contributing to economic frourishing.

  定义与分类的不规范首先不利于正确引导投资决策。对购物中心的定义与分类的不规范造成对该产业一系列基本概念的混乱。投资者和资本市场必须有能力对各种类型的零售的进行业绩度量和基准确定,以了解相关的风险/回报和投资价格。在进行投资决策时因无法正确参照对照物对投资项目市场环境的调研,效益的测算和同业竞争等情况的了解均会发生困难。如果一个新的购物中心分类不实用或不能转化为市场知识,其结果可能是使市场复杂化,混淆了市场的参与者,导致资本市场对整个零售业的不适当的配置。
  The first, non-criterion of definition and classification make against to leading investment decision rightly and bring to a series of confusion of basic concept. Investor and capital market must have a power to measurement performance and confirmation benchmark of various retailing forms, so that realizing risk ,return andinvestment . When investment decision, due to can not refer to contrast in survey to market environment for item rightly, will happen difficulty to understanding industrial competition and forecasting benefit. If a new classification of shopping center is not utility and can not translate into market knowledge. The result could be a complicated market, confusion of market actors, leading to the inappropriate allocation of Capital markets to the entire retailing.

  其次,不利于行业管理。由于基本概念缺乏社会的共识,对任何现有的定义与分类方法就有可能缺乏普遍的认同,其结果是零售业态边界的模糊以至于互相冲突,更谈不上团结和调动业内力量实现有效的行业自律。概念的混乱也使商业立法发生困难,不利于通过行业管理和法制的力量促使该产业的健康有序的发展。
  The second, make against to administration of industry.. Since the basic concept of the lack of social consensus on the definition and classification of any existing method alone may not generally recognized. The result is a blurred border of retailing even conflict with one another, much less effective in rallying and mobilizing the strength of industry self-regulation. Legislative business concept so difficult for the chaos, is not conducive to industrial management and legal force to promote the healthy and orderly development of the industry.

  再有,不利于沟通交流。概念混乱使学术研究与交流发生困难。由于歧义丛生,使原本应专业化的工作变得难以深入开展和水平的提升。
  Again, is not conducive to communication. Academic research and exchanges is so difficult. because the concept of chaos. Due to a discrepancy bushes, making it difficult to be a professional work and upgrading level .

  因此,科学规范购物中心的定义与分类是购物中心产业发展的现实需要。
  So, scientific criterion definition and classification of shopping centers is real required of industrial development.

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