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  俞稚玉,上海购物中心协会副秘书长兼研究发展中心主任。

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美国购物中心分类:风险与机遇

U.S. Shopping Center Classifications:
Challenges and Opportunities
美国购物中心分类:风险与机遇
James R. DeLisle*

    BACKGROUND 背景

    Over the years, shopping center formats have taken on a confusing array of identities, with names that include such descriptors as centers, commons, crossings, hybrids, lifestyle centers, calls, markets, marts, mega-malls, mixed-use,outlets, parkways, places, plazas,promenades, shops, strips,squares, super centers, town centers, urban retail, vertical,and villages.

    多年来,购物中心业态特征被模糊了.包括下例的名称都作为中心来描述:

    commons (公共中心) crossings (十字中心)

    hybrids (桥接中心) lifestyle centers (生活方式中心)

    calls (呼叫中心) markets (市场)

    marts (商业中心) mega-malls (大型摩尔)

    mixed-use (共用空间) outlets (工厂直销)

    parkways (园径) places (商场)

    plazas (广场) promenades (步行街)

    shops (商店) strips (条状中心)

    squares (广场) super centers (超级中心)

    town centers (城镇中心) urban retail (都市中心)

    vertical (立式中心) villages. (村)

    Unfortunately, there is no agreement as to how many distinct types of shopping center formats there really are,nor how individual centers should be assigned to the various categories. Adding to the confusion is the fact that shopping centers can be further differentiated by a variety of marketing and management strategies including:convenience,entertainment, ethnicity, festival, lifestyle,luxury, off-price, theme (e.g., home improvement and furniture), tourist, urban and value. When considering the possible combinations of these types of differentiating, it is understandable that some consider the retail sector inherently complex and difficult to understand.

    不幸的是对与购物中心业态究竟有多少种独特的类型和一个购物中心应该配置那些不同的商品品类还没有一致的意见。购物中心可因不同的营销和管理形成进一步的差异增加了概念上的混乱,包括它的:便利性、娱乐性、种族性、节庆性、生活方式性、豪华性、低价性、主题性(如:家居用品和家具)、面向旅游者、都市中心和价值中心。可考虑将这些不同类型结合,使零售分类十分复杂并难一理解。

    To address this situation and help provide some insight into the major components of the retail market, the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) developed a classification of shopping center formats. This typology has undergozhene a number of modifications over the years, as new formats have emerged and variations of existing formats have become more significant. ICSC is at an important crossroads with respect to the reassessment of current shopping center definitions as it considers how to respond to the introduction of new formats, the blurring of lines among existing categories, and the resurgence in mixed-use and other urban projects in which retail is a component of a larger development. While the current typology, or classification scheme, has come under attack by some who argue they are imprecise, the organization’s standard has contributed to a greater understanding of the structure and performance of the overall shopping center industry. However, given the dynamic, competitive nature of retail real estate and increased interest in the role of retail has in revitalizing urban centers, managing growth and responding to market demand, the timing is right to step back and revisit the current classifications. This review process can benefit from the application of “rules of classification,” as well as efforts to expand the market’s acceptance and use of ICSC’s shopping center classification.

    为了指导和帮助提供零售市场主要构成的情况ICSC 开发了一个购物中心业态的分类.这个分类学已经修正了前几年的数字,出现新的业态和现存业态的边异有更重要的意义。ICSC 处于重要的十字路口,它既要兼顾怎样对因传入新业态以至分类系列模糊的现有购物中心定义的重新评估和又要对更大发展零售项目如混合使用及其它都市项目的认识。现有的分类学和分类方案受到某些人的批评,他们认为是不严密的。这个机构标准的贡献是对整个购物中心产业结构和业绩的最大谅解。无论如何,适时的回顾和重登现在的分类可给予有竞争天性的零售房地产业以动力并提高更新在都市中心、管理的成长、零售角色及对市场需求的反应的兴趣。重温这个过程可从分类规则中获益,也可努力扩大市场的认知度和ICSC 的购物中心分类的利用度。

    EVOLUTION OF SHOPPING CENTER CLASSIFICATIONS

    购物中心分类的演变

    To provide a frame of reference for revisiting shopping center classifications nd to develop ome perspective on current issues, it is necessary to explore the evolution of shopping enters and shopping center classifications. There have been three major waves of shopping enter development that have triggered changes in retail classifications. During the first wave,shopping centers were classified into several basic categories, including community centers, ighborhood centers and strip centers. These shopping center formats were distinct from free-standing retail and urban retail with respect to integrated design and unified storefronts,provision of on-site parking, strategic blending of tenants, emphasis on convenience and basic goods and coordinated management. Early shopping centers also tended to be fairly uniform, designed to satisfy more of the mass merchandise demands while offering the convenience of one-stop shopping. In the second wave, which began with Southdale Mall in Minneapolis, the age of regional malls was born. This wave took the form of a shift from urban to suburban shopping, spawning a spate of new malls. The major distinguishing elements of malls over shopping centers was the fact that most were enclosed centers with a common corridor connecting tenants, and sheer increases in the aggregate size and number of tenants, both anchor and in-line.1 The third wave was a period of product differentiation in which the two core categories were further subdivided. For example, with the emergence of “category killers,” the shopping center category spawned a new genre of centers known as powercenters.2 Similarly, super regional malls became dwarfed by even larger formats known as mega-malls such as the West Edmonton Mall and the Mall of America. During this period, the market also began recognizing various positioning strategies, which emerged as developers and operators sought to differentiate their properties and firm up their market niches (e.g.,entertainment, festival, lifestyle, mixed-use, open-air, premium, and tourist).

    为了提供重新审视购物中心分类的参考性框架和对现版的分类提出某些观点,必须了解购物中心和购物中心分类的演变。引发零售分类变化的购物中心的发展已有三次高潮。第一波,已将购物中心区分为不同的基本种类,包括社区中心(Community Centers)、邻里中心(Neighborhood Centers)和条状中心(Strip Centers)。这些购物中心的业态与无标准的零售业和都市零售业截然不同。他们重视整体设计和统一的店面、提供停车泊位、租户的组合策略,强调便利性、基础商品和协同管理。早期的购物中心在提供方便的一步式购物的同时,倾向于更加统一性和更大的满足群众的商品需求。第二波开始于地区摩尔诞生的年代,即明尼阿波利斯的Southdale Mall。这一波产生了从都市购物向郊区购物形式的转换,迎来了新的摩尔的浪潮。摩尔超越购物中心主要的区别元素在于大多数被围起来的中心有一个公共的走廊连接租户并极大地增加了集合体的体量和锚店和里面租户的数量。第三波是产生差异化的时期,即在两种核心种类的基础上进一步被细分化。例如:出现“品类杀手”、购物中心衍生的新类型众所周知的能量中心、使超级地区摩尔相形显小的更大的业态——百万摩尔(Mega-malls),象西爱德蒙摩尔(West Edmonton Mall)和美国摩尔(Mall of America)。在这期间,市场也开始认可各种配置的战略,这些战略应发展商和运行商寻求他们物业的差异化并由此而提升企业的生存环境而生。(如:娱乐、节庆、生活方式、共用空间、开放式、有奖销售和面向旅游
者)。

    CURRENT ICSC SHOPPING CENTER CLASSIFICATIONS

    现版的ICSC购物中心的分类

    The current ICSC shopping center classifications consist of two major categories: malls and open-air centers, each of which is divided into sub categories. Within these broad categories,the sub-classifications hinge on several key attributes, including:

    现版的ICSC购物中心的分类包括两个主要的种类:摩尔和开放式中心。它们各自又分为亚类。这些类别和亚类以几个关键的属性来区别。包括:

    • Concept. The underlying business strategy or model that distinguishes the REIT (realestate investment trust) or helps characterize its overall operations. The defined “concept”captures the theme or market positioning offered by centers within the broader categories,including such characteristics as convenience, customer-orientation, entertainment,merchandise lines, and price points.

    概念:基本的经营战略或与房地产信托基金相区别的模式或籍助于全面运营的特征。被定义的概念确定了主题或由购物中心在阔广的类别中选定的市场定位,包括诸如便利、顾客定位、娱乐、商品线和价格导向等特性。

    • Size. The massing of the center, including both anchor tenants and other tenants.

    大小::大的中心包括锚店和其它租户。

    • Acreage. The typical land assemblage required to house the retail space, along with parking and ancillary services necessary to the operation of the respective types of centers.

    面积:典型的场地配备必要的零售空间建筑,连同停车场和对中心类型有关的运行所必需的辅助服务。

    • Typical Anchors. A profile of the type, size, and business orientation of the major anchor tenants that are typically housed in the centers.

    典型的锚店:占据中心有代表性的建筑的主要锚定租户的类型轮廓、面积大小和业务定位。

    • Anchor Ratios. The mix of anchor and non-anchor tenants, including in-line retail tenants.

    锚店比率:锚店与非锚店租户的组合,包括线内零售租户。

    • Primary Trade Areas. The typical size of the primary trade area from which the respective centers draw the bulk (i.e., 60%-80%) of their customer sales.

    主要商圈:典型的大小是该中心对他们顾客吸引销售能力的大小(如60%-80%)。

    Table 22-1 presents the core concepts and size ranges of the eight sub-types of retail in the current ICSC classification system. As noted, there are some overlaps in the various attributes across several retail classes. Thus, in order to properly classify a center, the combination of other attributes must also be considered.

    表22-1表明核心概念和现版ICSC分类系统中八个亚类的大小排列。注意有几个零售种类交叉的不同属性的一些交迭。于是,为了正确地区分一个中心必须结合考虑其它的属性。

   

    CURRENT INDUSTRY USAGE OF SHOPPING CENTER CLASSIFICATIONS

    目前产业购物中心分类的用法

    An important consideration in efforts to enhance the classification system for shopping centers is an assessment of the degree to which the current classifications have penetrated the industry. Several key potential users of the existing typology of centers are noteworthy:

    在提高购物中心分类系统的努力中需要考虑的一个重要问题是现版分类对产业洞察程度的评估。对现行中心分类学几个关键的潜在用户是值得关注的:

    • NCREIF. The National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries is the main source of private, institutional real estate performance data. The NCREIF Index, launched in 1978 to provide institutional investors with meaningful benchmarks for real estate, is broken down into a number of classes including regions, property types, and sub-property types.3 As of mid-2005, the retail component of the NCREIF Index included $37.3 billion of retail assigned to the super-regional, regional, community, power and fashion categories. The remaining $370 million that was unclassified fits into the outlet centers, theme/festival centers, single tenant facilities, and “unknown” categories for which the number of centers fails to meet the masking criteria.

    NCREIF:国家房地产投资信托委员会是民间机构房地产数据的主要来源。始于1978年为机构投资者提供房地产有意义的标杆的NCREIF指数的许多指标一度中断,包括地区、物业的类型和物业亚类。至2005年中,NCREIF指数的零售构成包括373亿美元零售额分布于超级地区中心、地区中心、社区中心、能量中心、时尚中心类。还有3.7亿美元适合于工厂直销中心、主题/节庆中心、单一租户的设施和许多适用标准模糊未知类型的中心未被分类。

    • NAREIT. The National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts has not established a classification system for retail properties, although it groups REITs into several general retail classes: shopping centers, regional malls, and free standing. These three categories accounted for a market cap of some $85 billion, which translated to 25% of the total REIT market cap. Actual retail holdings exceed that amount, since diversified REITs and other categories include some retail investments. Within REITs, the use of ICSC shopping center classes for individual holdings is somewhat limited, with some 38% falling into the major classes, and 58% either unclassified or falling under a generic label, including some of the major shopping center REITs that do not classify individual properties. Some REITs do report new formats (e.g., lifestyle, mixed-use, specialty, street, and other) although these account for only 4% of all designated holdings.

    NAREIT 国家房地产投资信托协会对零售物业还未建立分类系统.虽然这个集团的房地产投资信托业务已进入几个常见的零售种类:购物中心、地区摩尔和非标准的中心。这三种的市值为850亿美元,即调度房地产投资信托基金总市值的25%。实际的零售业主超过上述数字,因为REIT可做多样的投资也包括其他种类的零售投资项目。在REIT领域内对个别的业主应用ICSC购物中心分类有一定的局限,其中38%可确定为主要的类别,而58%要么难以区分,要么作为一般标识,包括某些对物业未做分类的REIT下的主要购物中心。有些REIT报告了新的业态(如:生活方式、共用空间、专业、街和其它),虽然这个数字仅占全部业主的4%。

    • Vendors. A number of vendors track the shopping center industry, reporting on market structure and performance. In general, information providers do not embrace the ICSC definitions beyond the major classes of malls and shopping centers, or by using size designations. For example, the National Research Bureau (NRB), which focuses on the retail industry recognizes some 18 formats, but uses six size categories when breaking down the census of centers into aggregate groups.

    卖主 许多卖主跟踪购物中心产业,报告市场结构和业绩。一般而言,信息的提供者不用ICSC对购物中心和摩尔定义的主要分类或用大小确定。如:国家研究局(NRB)关注零售业公认的18中业态,但在中心非普查期间仅用6种来分组。

    In addition to these major industry players, a number of other parties also classify shopping centers. Examples of these parties include: appraisers who value centers and use classifications in picking comparables, lenders who underwrite commercial mortgages, rating agencies who rate CMBS issuances and trade associations which track the retail industry as part of their overall coverage. In general, while recognizing the leadership role of ICSC, there is little evidence that these and other market participants and information providers strictly adhere to the current ICSC classifications.

    除了业内这些外,还有许多其他购物中心的分类,包括估价中心并采集可比较分类的评估者、商业典押贷款人、发行商业典押保证证券(CMBS)的评估中介和跟踪他们所覆盖这部分零售业的商会。通常,ICSC是公认的权威,有些迹象表明这些人和其他市场参与者和信息提供者确实在追随ICSC的分类。

    POTENTIAL USERS OF SHOPPING CENTER CLASSIFICATIONS

    购物中心分类的潜在用户

    In addition to recognizing the needs of current users of shopping center classes, a number ofother parties should be considered in revising the classification system. The key user groups and perspectives to consider include:

    除了大家知道的需要购物中心分类的当前用户外,在修订分类系统时,许多其他用户也应被考虑。考虑关键的用户群和前景应包括:

    • Capital Markets. The convergence of real estate and the capital markets, and the dependency of the retail industry on adequate capital flows elevates the capital markets to an important constituency whose needs should be considered in revisiting shopping center definitions. In general, greater transparency for the sector will be critical to its ability to capture a fair share of capital flows relative to other property types. As such, it is particularly important that a new classification system for shopping center formats address the needs of key capital market players (e.g., NCREIF, NAREIT) as well as appraisers, lenders, and investors.

    资本市场房地产业和资本市场的集中和零售业对充足资金流的依赖促使资本市场成为一个主要的支撑,他们的需要应该在再次定义购物中心时被考虑。通常,这部分最明显的是它参与各种相关物业类型并有较好资金流股份的获得能力的评估。一个能为资本市场运行商(如:NCREIF, NAREIT)、估价师、贷款人和投资人提出需求的购物中心业态新的分类系统特别重要。

    • Growth Management Community. The retail industry is facing a number of challenges as planners and governmental agencies seek to manage growth and to contain urban sprawl. To ensure that such policies are sensitive to the impact on consumers and the need to maintain market balance, it is important that these parties understand how different shopping center formats fit into the urban mosaic and what makes them successful. At the same time, cities are developing incentive programs to increase density, make neighborhoods more livable,and revitalize urban centers. In many cases, retail plays an important role in such efforts.Revised and enhanced shopping center classifications can help inform these efforts and create a foundation that can be used to negotiate optimal approaches that take advantage of the contribution that various shopping centers can make to developing socially responsible, ethical, and pro-actively managed communities.

    对于寻求管理成长和都市延伸的规划者和政府机构,零售业正在面对许多挑战。要确保影响消费者和需要保持市场平衡的那些政策的敏感性。了解适合都市型的购物中心业态有那些差别和如何得以成功是很重要的。

    • American Planning Association. The American Planning Association (APA)developed multidimensional Land-Based Classification Standards (LBCS) for classifying land uses. This classification system is based on five attributes: activity, function, structure, site development character, and ownership. LBCS covers shopping centers under “Structure 2500: Malls,shopping centers, or collections of shops.” Although recognizing the importance of physical characteristics,APA stresses that for planning applications, knowing the type of trade area served by the shopping center (i.e., neighborhood or region) is more useful than knowing the basic configuration. Land-use classification systems have used a variety of categories in the past.Due to the increasing role that planners and the entitlement process play in approving new shopping centers, it is clear that efforts to enhance the shopping center classification system should contribute to more informed, market-based policies and practices.

    美国计划协会 美国计划协会(APA)开发多维的土地分类标准(LBCS)用于对土地的分类.这个分类系统基于五个属性:活动性、功能性、结构性、区位发展特性和权属性。尽管强调物理特征的重要性,LBCS还是在“结构2005:摩尔、购物中心,或商铺的选择”项下包括了购物中心。

    APA对于计划的应用强调了解购物中心所服务的商圈类型(如:邻里中心或地区中心)比了解它的基本配置更有用。用地分类系统已经用于过去不同的类别。为了帮助计划者和受权运作新批购物中心者扮演好各自的角色,应努力改进购物中心分类系统以便提供更多的市场策略和实践经验。

    • Retail Developers. The retail arena is extremely competitive, with developers seeking new solutions that will better satisfy consumer and tenant needs. Classifying centers into meaningful categories and tracking performance of various formats can go a long way to increase market efficiency and help focus development activity on viable product categories. This is particularly true in the case of new formats including mixed-use, lifestyle centers,market centers and urban infill development, that are receiving a lot of attention by cities and planners, but which have unproven track records. An enhanced classification system can help “educate” the market to the critical success factors underlying such innovations, to help cationalize new activity and maintain market balance. At the same time, it can help developers avoid the risk of creating a slew of new product that fails to satisfy retail needs in terms of size,configuration, loading docks, parking and other elements critical to retail success.

    零售开发商 零售业是一个激烈竞争的领域,开发商正寻求新的解决办法以更好的满足消费和租户的需要。将中心分类为有意义的类别并跟踪各种业态的业绩以便提高市场效率并帮助集中发展活跃的可行的产品种类将任重道远。确确实实地存在的包括共享空间、生活方式中心、市场中心和都市见缝插针式开发等新业态的案例受到城市居民和计划者的关注,但是它们的跟综记录尚未被证实。改进分类系统有助于培育市场对潜在的那些创新成功因素的评估。有利于
新的行动的合理化和保持市场平衡。同时,能帮助开发商避免大量产品创新的风险。这些创新产品往往失败在谈判中它体量的大小、配置、装卸平台、停车场和对评估零售成功的其它要素不能满足零售的需要。

    IMPORTANCE OF SHOPPING CENTER CLASSIFICATIONS

    购物中心分类的重要性

    The lack of widespread reliance on ICSC classification of shopping centers and the resultantambiguity surrounding retail formats has far-reaching impacts, affecting retail participants on bothMain Street and Wall Street. On the Main Street side, efficient operation of the retail market depends on the fact that real estate developers, tenants, planners and other facilitators understand the underlying business models and drivers of value for the various types of retail. On the Wall Street side,investors and capital markets must be able to apply performance measurements and benchmarks to various types of retail to understand relative risk/return and price these investments. In addition, commercial vendors and trade associations depend on valid, reliable and credible classifications of retail properties to support their activities in data collection, research and education, particularly for the research firms and data purveyors who track occupancy, rents, absorption and other measures of market fundamentals. Although specialists who concentrate exclusively on the retail industry may be able to operate without an industry consensus on shopping center classification, the same cannot be said for those for whom retail is only a part of their focus. This caveat is especially true when looking beyond the real estate market, to other affected parties who directly or indirectly affect the functioning of the retail market. To support the informational and educational needs of these parties, it is imperative that the market be offered a framework, and the tools to implement it, so that it can allow non-retail specialists to approach the retail sector with a greater understanding of its underlying structure. The bottom line is that greater market knowledge and insight can lead to the application of more proactive investment,management and regulatory strategies. It should be noted that efforts to develop a valid and reliable shopping center classification system will always have to address the dynamic tension between overand under-classification. The appropriate number of categories could be addressed through statistical tests of significance, but attention should also be paid to challenges associated with getting the market to embrace the classification system. The ultimate typology should also address the challenges that will be associated with the task of accurately assigning retail properties to the various sub-categories.To the extent possible, efforts should also be made to ensure that best practices and reporting requirements mandate their use. However, if a new typology of centers is unwieldy or cannot be translated to market knowledge, efforts to enhance the current classification system can backfire. The end result could be a situation in which the resulting complexity overwhelms the market, confounding market participants and leading to inappropriate allocations from the capital markets to the overall retail sector.

    对ICSC购物中心分类缺乏普遍的信任,其结果是零售业态边界的模糊以至于互相冲突,已影响明街(Main Street)和华尔街(Wall Street)对零售的参与。在明街这边,零售市场的有效运行实际是依靠了解潜在商业模式的房地产开发商、租户、计划者、其他设备商并驱动不同零售类型的价值实现。在华尔街这边,投资者和资本市场必须有能力对各种类型的零售的进行业绩度量和基准确定,以了解相关的风险/回报和投资价格。此外,商业卖主和商会依靠快速、可靠和可信的零售物业的分类以支持他们在资料选择、研究和培训行动,特别对企业和资料承办商跟踪占有、租用、吸收和其它市场基础数据测定的研究。虽然如果没有行业统一的购物中心的分类,专攻零售业的那些专家们仍有能力操作,同样不能说对于零售商这些仅是他们关注的一部分。当看到房地产市场那边受到直接或间接影响零售市场功能的那部分人的影响时,这种告戒尤其正确。需要这些人支持情报和教育,迫切需要市场提出一个框架和实施的工具,以便使非零售专家能接近零售部分更了解它的基本的结构。这个基础就是能导致应用抢先投资、管理和调整战略的更多市场知识和见识。应该注意到努力开发一个有效的和可靠的购物中心分类系统将永远忙于上下分类的压力。适当数量的类别将被通过统计显著性检验。但也应注意到有关市场接受这个分类系统的挑战。最后的分类学应处理对零售物业的各种亚类指定正确的有关任务的挑战。在可能的范围内,也应努力确保最好的实践并报告他们使用的需求。然而,如果一个新的购物中心分类不实用或不能转化为市场知识,改进现有的分类系统就可能失败。其结果可能是这种情况:使市场复杂化,混淆了市场的参与者,导致资本市场对整个零售业的不适当的配置。

    RULES OF CLASSIFICATION FOR SHOPPING CENTERS

    购物中心分类规则

    Three major requirements must be addressed in attempt to enhance a shopping center classification system: it must be unambiguous, it must be meaningful and it must be capable of being measured.4 Unambiguous means that the individual properties must be uniquely assigned to a single category by some systematic process that can be applied in an objective and dispassionate manner. The typology must also have stability and consistency that endures over time.This criterion is important in light of the longitudinal use of a classification system to code individual properties, track market structure, and calculate performance measures. At the same time, it should be anticipated that developers, investors and retailers will continually “push the envelope” with new innovations in an attempt to capture a competitive advantage. Since many of these “innovations” will not catch on, the decision to elevate them to the level of distinct categories should depend on their longevity or staying power rather than popular opinion that proves fleeting. The ultimate classification system also
must be meaningful. While the related question of “to whom” should it should be meaningful should be debated (i.e., ICSC core members vs. broader constituencies), there are some objective measures to help resolve this issue. In general, whether a category is “meaningful”should be judged based on three dimensions. First, centers that are assigned to any particular class must have a degree of homogeneity or similarity with other members of the same class, and must be meaningfully different from properties in other classes. Second, to justify treatment as a distinct sub-category, there must be a sufficient number of candidate properties to warrant separation. This criterion must be carefully applied in the case of new trends, where new classes of retail formats are likely to emerge over a reasonable period of time. Finally, to warrant treatment as a distinct shopping center class, the market must have the potential to capture some pay-off or ancillary benefits to justify the effort to create and track a new category of shopping centers. The third important factor for classification is that
individual properties or projects that make up a category must be measurable. That is, the relevant characteristics of individual properties or projects that make up a category must be capable of being identified and quantified in a public, objective, and verifiable manner. Moreover, the individual classes and overall typology must be palatable to key players in the market to ensure industry acceptance. Without sufficient buy-in, the development of new classes of retail that do not supplant other classifications will merely add to confusion and thwart efforts to increase understanding and market transparency. Thus, it is imperative that current industry leaders and market participants (e.g., investors, rating agencies, trade associations, and companies) must embrace the new classification).5

    努力改进购物中心分类系统三个主要的原则必须是:不含糊、有意义。

    不含糊 意却:应用客观的不带主观情感的方法,通过一些的系统的程序,一个物业必须被唯一地指派在一个类别中。分类必须经得起时间的考验,有稳定性和连贯性,按纵向原则用分类系统对个别物业进行编码、跟踪市场结构和计算业绩度量的标准是重要的。同时可以预见,为试图获得竞争优势,发展商、投资商和零售商将不断地探索创新。因为这些创新许多未被抓住,决心提升它们清晰类别的水平应赖于他们的资历和比通常短浅的主张更强的支撑能力。最
后的分类系统还必须是有意义的。讲到有意义是对谁,是有争议的(如:对ICSC核心成员还是对广大的顾客),有写客观的标准来帮助解决这个问题。通常,一个类别是否有意义应有三个要素来判定。第一:被确定为某一特定种类的中心必须与其它同类成员有一定程度的同质性和相似性,并且与其它类别的物业有意义的差别。第二要正确处理有特点的亚类,它们必须有足够数量的能确保分离的候选物业。这个标准必须小心地用于新的趋势的情况下,零售业态新类别的出现也许会超过合理的时间。最后,对努力创新和跟踪一个购物中心新的类别,市场必须有可能获取某些收益或补偿,才能保证作为一个独特的购物中心类别来处理。第三个分类的重要因素是个别物业或项目被补充为一种类别必须是可度量的。这就是补充作为一个类别的个别物业或项目的相关特征必须是可被公众客观地识别和被量化并有方法证明的。此外,个别类别和全部分类必须是合乎人意的,在市场中有确保被行业接纳的关键表现。如果没有足够的服务对象,开发新的零售分类如不能代替其它分类,则仅仅增加了混乱且阻碍增进了解和透明度。于是,这就需要现在行业领导者和市场参与者(如:投资者、评估中介、商会和公司)必须乐意进行新分类的工作。

    RECOMMENDED APPROACH

    方法建议

    The goal of revisiting ICSC’s classification of shopping centers should be to produce a system that can satisfy the rules of classification discussed earlier: unambiguous, meaningful, and measurable and lead to greater transparency and efficiency for direct players. At a higher level, though, efforts should also be extended to ensure the resultant typology leads to a greater understanding of the retail industry, and the important role that it plays in our market-based economy. By highlighting the distinguishing elements and identifying the fundamental drivers of the various retail formats, the classification system can be used to support greater collaboration in which the retail sector can be seen as a partner in solving challenges surrounding the management of growth and the revitalization of our cities. Going forward, one can envision some form of hierarchical typology that breaks retail categories down into functional or locational groupings, with major and minor classes. At the same time,the typology would address various positioning strategies that might further differentiate products in terms of price points or other factors. Finally, the classification system should address the types of challenges that need to be resolved to add more transparency to the retail scene and avoid some of the ambiguity that could emerge if the issues of classification are not adequately addressed. In developing and promulgating its expanded classifications, the ICSC could help the market avoid some of the mistakes that are looming on the horizon as inexperienced parties and vested interest groups move into the retail arena without an understanding of the need for the coordination that is necessary to create sustainable retail solutions that enhance the quality of life for current and future generations.

    重修ICSC购物中心分类之目的应该是能产生一个能满足早期论述分类规则的系统:即不含糊、有意义和可度量并导致更大透明和直接运行人更高的效率。更高的要求是这种努力还应延伸到确保分类结果能导致对零售业更多的理解,并且在市场经济中扮演起重要的角色。通过突出有区别的元素并确定各种零售业态的基本驱动者,分类系统能被用于支持零售业更大的合作,在解决培育管理环境和复兴我们城市的挑战中零售业可被看作为伙伴。进一步,在一些分等级分类的设想中有一种可能的形式是突破零售类别,按功能和位置分组为主类和次类。同时分类还应加上不同的区位策略,这个策略可能进一步按照价格指向或其它因素区分产品。最后,分类系统应该处理各种类型挑战的挑战,需要断然地对零售现场增加更多的透明度,并且,避免一些因未充分处理分类中的问题而可能出现的模糊不清。在开发和发布扩充的分类时,ICSC可能帮助市场避免因缺乏经验出现某些差错和因不理解需要与必须创建足以支撑的提高现在和未来的生活质量的零售解决方案相协调,使既得的利益集团登上零售舞台。

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